What are the rights and responsibilities of permanent residents of Canada?
Permanent residency is a status Canada grants through one of the different immigration processes. Permanent residents of Canada remain citizens of other countries. They are not Canadian citizens.
Refugees who come to Canada through a resettlement program (Private Sponsorship of Refugees Program or Government-Assisted Refugees Program) become permanent residents when they arrive in Canada. Therefore, they have the same rights and duties as any other permanent resident of Canada.
What are the rights of permanent residents?
Permanent residents have the right to :
- get most social benefits that Canadian citizens receive, including healthcare coverage
- live, work, or study anywhere in Canada
- protection under Canadian law and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
- apply for Canadian citizenship
Because they are not Canadian citizens, they cannot :
- vote or run for political office
- hold some jobs that need a high-level security clearance
What are the responsibilities of permanent residents?
Permanent residents must :
- respect all Canadian laws at the federal, provincial, and municipal levels
- pay taxes
Residency obligation: To keep their permanent resident status, they need to be in Canada for at least 730 days during a period of five years. The 730 days don't need to be continuous.
When permanent residents apply to renew their Permanent Resident card or for Canadian citizenship, they must provide details about their international travel for up to 5 years.
For more information
- Understand Permanent resident status, from Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC).
- What are the residency requirements for Permanent residents?, an article from Settlement.org.
- Learn about taxes, an article from Settlement.org.
- The travel journal, an easy way to record trips outside Canada.